Publication Date: 2012.
A databank of 78 VP1 complete sequences of type A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from South American isolates was constructed. Forty-nine samples corresponded to FMDV that circulated between the years 1999–2008, mainly in Venezuela, where most type A outbreaks have occurred lately and twenty-nine to strains historically relevant for the continent. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all South American FMDV belonged to the Euro-SA topotype. Sixteen subgenotypes could be identified, based on a 15% nucleotide divergence cut-off criterion: eight are extinguished, three were active until the year 2002 and the remaining five circulated in Venezuela during the years 2001–2007, illustrating the potential for FMDV diversification under appropriate selective pressure. The last emergencies reported in already-free areas of Colombia in 2004 and 2008 were closely related to isolates acting in Venzuela. Evidence of positive selection over codon 170, within the immunogenic site 4 of VP1 protein, was recorded. A codon deletion in amino acid position 142, within the G–H loop, was found in some isolates within subgenotypes 14, 15 and 16. Conversely amino acid deletion 197 was restricted to all isolates within a particular genetic cluster. The present work is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of FMDV type A in South America, filling a gap of knowledge with respect to both, historical and acting viruses. The results provided evidence that supports the ecosystem dynamics in the region, and also served as an input to establish genetic links of emergencies in already-declared free areas, highlighting the need for strengthening control activities.
Author affiliation: Malirat, Viviana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología "Dr. Cesar Milstein". Fundación Pablo Cassara. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología ; Argentina. Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center; Brasil
Author affiliation: Bergmann, Ingrid Evelyn. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología "Dr. Cesar Milstein". Fundación Pablo Cassara. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología ; Argentina. Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center; Brasil
Author affiliation: Campos, Renata de Mendonça. Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center; Brasil. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz; Brasil
Author affiliation: Conde, Florangel. Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas; Venezuela
Author affiliation: Quiroga, José Luis. Laboratorio de Investigación y Diagnóstico Veterinario; Bolivia
Author affiliation: Villamil, Mariluz. Laboratorio Nacional de Diagnóstico Veterinario; Colombia
Author affiliation: Salgado, Gustavo. Instituto de Medicina e Higiene Tropical ‘‘Izquieta Perez’; Ecuador
Author affiliation: Ortiz, Salomón. Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Animal; Perú
Repository: CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas