**Authors**:
Oran, R.; Landi, E.; Van Der Holst, B.; Lepri, S. T.; Vasquez, Alberto Marcos; Nuevo, Federico Alberto; Frazin, R.; Manchester, W.; Sokolov, I.; Gombosi, T. I.

**Publication Date:** 2015.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

The higher charge states found in slow (<400 km s−1) solar wind streams compared to fast streams have supported the hypothesis that the slow wind originates in closed coronal loops, and released intermittently through reconnection. Here we examine whether a highly ionized slow wind can also form along steady and open magnetic field lines. We model the steady-state solar atmosphere using AWSoM, a global magnetohydrodynamic model driven by Alfv{´e}n waves, and apply an ionization code to calculate the charge state evolution along modeled open field lines. This constitutes the first charge states calculation covering all latitudes in a realistic magnetic field. The ratios $O^{+7}/O^{+6}$ and $C^{+6}/C^{+5}$ are compared to in-situ Ulysses observations, and are found to be higher in the slow wind, as observed; however, they are under-predicted in both wind types. The modeled ion fractions of S, Si, and Fe are used to calculate line-of-sight intensities, which are compared to EIS observations above a coronal hole. The agreement is partial, and suggests that all ionization rates are under-predicted. Assuming the presence of suprathermal electrons improved the agreement with both EIS and Ulysses observations; importantly, the trend of higher ionization in the slow wind was maintained. The results suggest there can be a sub-class of slow wind that is steady and highly ionized. Further analysis shows it originates from coronal hole boundaries (CHB), where the modeled electron density and temperature are higher than inside the hole, leading to faster ionization. This property of CHBs is global, and observationally supported by EUV tomography.

**Author affiliation**: Oran, R.. University Of Michigan; Estados Unidos

**Author affiliation**: Landi, E.. University Of Michigan; Estados Unidos

**Author affiliation**: Van Der Holst, B.. University Of Michigan; Estados Unidos

**Author affiliation**: Lepri, S. T.. University Of Michigan; Estados Unidos

**Author affiliation**: Vasquez, Alberto Marcos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio; Argentina

**Author affiliation**: Nuevo, Federico Alberto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio; Argentina

**Author affiliation**: Frazin, R.. University Of Michigan; Estados Unidos

**Author affiliation**: Manchester, W.. University Of Michigan; Estados Unidos

**Author affiliation**: Sokolov, I.. University Of Michigan; Estados Unidos

**Author affiliation**: Gombosi, T. I.. University Of Michigan; Estados Unidos

**Repository:** CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

**Publication Date:** 2013.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

Context. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). One property of MCs is the presence of a magnetic flux rope. Is the difference between ICMEs with and without MCs intrinsic or rather due to an observational bias? Aims. As the spacecraft has no relationship with the MC trajectory, the frequency distribution of MCs versus the spacecraft distance to the MCs' axis is expected to be approximately flat. However, Lepping & Wu (2010, Ann. Geophys., 28, 1539) confirmed that it is a strongly decreasing function of the estimated impact parameter. Is a flux rope more frequently undetected for larger impact parameter? Methods. In order to answer the questions above, we explore the parameter space of flux rope models, especially the aspect ratio, boundary shape, and current distribution. The proposed models are analyzed as MCs by fitting a circular linear force-free field to the magnetic field computed along simulated crossings. Results. We find that the distribution of the twist within the flux rope and the non-detection due to too low field rotation angle or magnitude only weakly affect the expected frequency distribution of MCs versus impact parameter. However, the estimated impact parameter is increasingly biased to lower values as the flux rope cross section is more elongated orthogonally to the crossing trajectory. The observed distribution of MCs is a natural consequence of a flux rope cross section flattened on average by a factor 2 to 3 depending on the magnetic twist profile. However, the faster MCs at 1 AU, with V > 550 km s-1, present an almost uniform distribution of MCs vs. impact parameter, which is consistent with round-shaped flux ropes, in contrast with the slower ones. Conclusions. We conclude that the sampling of MCs at various distances from the axis does not significantly affect their detection. The large part of ICMEs without MCs could be due to a too strict criteria for MCs or to the fact that these ICMEs are encountered outside their flux rope or near the leg region, or they do not contain a flux rope. © 2013 ESO.

**Author affiliation**: Dasso, S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Keywords:**
Magnetic fields; Solar-terrestrial relations; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Sun: heliosphere; Affect detection; Boundary shapes; Current distribution; Decreasing functions; Flux rope model; Flux ropes; Force free fields; Frequency distributions; Heliospheres; Impact-parameter; Interplanetary coronal mass ejections; Large parts; Low field; Magnetic clouds; Magnetic flux ropes; Natural consequences; Non-detection; Parameter spaces; Rotation angles; Solar-terrestrial relations; Spacecraft trajectories; Sun: coronal mass ejection; Uniform distribution; Aspect ratio; Computer simulation; Magnetic fields; Magnetic flux; Planetary surface analysis; Spacecraft; Trajectories; Parameter estimation.

**Repository:** Biblioteca Digital (UBA-FCEN). Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales

**Authors**:
Démoulin, Pascal; Dasso, Sergio Ricardo; Janvier, M.

**Publication Date:** 2013.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

Context. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). One property of MCs is the presence of a magnetic flux rope. Is the difference between ICMEs with and without MCs intrinsic or rather due to an observational bias? Aims. As the spacecraft has no relationship with the MC trajectory, the frequency distribution of MCs versus the spacecraft distance to the MCs’ axis is expected to be approximately flat. However, Lepping & Wu (2010, Ann. Geophys., 28, 1539) confirmed that it is a strongly decreasing function of the estimated impact parameter. Is a flux rope more frequently undetected for larger impact parameter? Methods. In order to answer the questions above, we explore the parameter space of flux rope models, especially the aspect ratio, boundary shape, and current distribution. The proposed models are analyzed as MCs by fitting a circular linear force-free field to the magnetic field computed along simulated crossings. Results. We find that the distribution of the twist within the flux rope and the non-detection due to too low field rotation angle or magnitude only weakly affect the expected frequency distribution of MCs versus impact parameter. However, the estimated impact parameter is increasingly biased to lower values as the flux rope cross section is more elongated orthogonally to the crossing trajectory. The observed distribution of MCs is a natural consequence of a flux rope cross section flattened on average by a factor 2 to 3 depending on the magnetic twist profile. However, the faster MCs at 1 AU, with V > 550 km s-1, present an almost uniform distribution of MCs vs. impact parameter, which is consistent with round-shaped flux ropes, in contrast with the slower ones. Conclusions. We conclude that the sampling of MCs at various distances from the axis does not significantly affect their detection. The large part of ICMEs without MCs could be due to a too strict criteria for MCs or to the fact that these ICMEs are encountered outside their flux rope or near the leg region, or they do not contain a flux rope.

**Author affiliation**: Démoulin, Pascal. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Observatoire de Paris; Francia

**Author affiliation**: Dasso, Sergio Ricardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio; Argentina

**Author affiliation**: Janvier, M.. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Observatoire de Paris; Francia

**Repository:** CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

**Authors**:
<div class="autor_fcen" id="6067">Nakwacki, M.S.</div>; <div class="autor_fcen" id="2288">Dasso, S.</div>; Démoulin, P.; <div class="autor_fcen" id="5317">Mandrini, C.H.</div>; <div class="autor_fcen" id="4119">Gulisano, A.M.</div>

**Publication Date:** 2011.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

Context. Significant quantities of magnetized plasma are transported from the Sun to the interstellar medium via interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a particular subset of ICMEs, forming large-scale magnetic flux ropes. Their evolution in the solar wind is complex and mainly determined by their own magnetic forces and the interaction with the surrounding solar wind. Aims. Magnetic clouds are strongly affected by the surrounding environment as they evolve in the solar wind. We study expansion of MCs, its consequent decrease in magnetic field intensity and mass density, and the possible evolution of the so-called global ideal-MHD invariants. Methods. In this work we analyze the evolution of a particular MC (observed in March 1998) using in situ observations made by two spacecraft approximately aligned with the Sun, the first one at 1 AU from the Sun and the second one at 5.4 AU. We describe the magnetic configuration of the MC using different models and compute relevant global quantities (magnetic fluxes, helicity, and energy) at both heliodistances. We also tracked this structure back to the Sun, to find out its solar source. Results. We find that the flux rope is significantly distorted at 5.4 AU. From the observed decay of magnetic field and mass density, we quantify how anisotropic is the expansion and the consequent deformation of the flux rope in favor of a cross section with an aspect ratio at 5.4 AU of ≈ 1.6 (larger in the direction perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun). We quantify the ideal-MHD invariants and magnetic energy at both locations, and find that invariants are almost conserved, while the magnetic energy decays as expected with the expansion rate found. Conclusions. The use of MHD invariants to link structures at the Sun and the interplanetary medium is supported by the results of this multi-spacecraft study. We also conclude that the local dimensionless expansion rate, which is computed from the velocity profile observed by a single-spacecraft, is very accurate for predicting the evolution of flux ropes in the solar wind. © 2011 ESO.

**Author affiliation**: Nakwacki, M.S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Author affiliation**: Dasso, S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Author affiliation**: Mandrini, C.H. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Author affiliation**: Gulisano, A.M. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Keywords:**
Magnetic fields; Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); Solar wind; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Sun: heliosphere; Sun: magnetic topology; Cross section; Dynamical evolution; Expansion rate; Flux ropes; Global quantities; Helicities; In-situ observations; Interplanetary coronal mass ejections; Interplanetary medium; Interstellar mediums; Link structure; Magnetic clouds; Magnetic configuration; Magnetic energies; Magnetic flux ropes; Magnetic force; Magnetic-field intensity; Magnetized plasmas; Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); Mass densities; Radial direction; Solar source; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Surrounding environment; Velocity profiles; Aspect ratio; Clouds; Expansion; Interplanetary spacecraft; Magnetic fields; Magnetic flux; Magnetoplasma; Planetary surface analysis; Solar system; Solar wind; Wind; Magnetohydrodynamics.

**Repository:** Biblioteca Digital (UBA-FCEN). Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales

**Authors**:
Nakwacki, Maria Soledad; Dasso, Sergio Ricardo; Démoulin, Pascal; Mandrini, Cristina Hemilse; Gulisano, Adriana Maria

**Publication Date:** 2011.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

Context. Significant quantities of magnetized plasma are transported from the Sun to the interstellar medium via interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a particular subset of ICMEs, forming large-scale magnetic flux ropes. Their evolution in the solar wind is complex and mainly determined by their own magnetic forces and the interaction with the surrounding solar wind. Aims. Magnetic clouds are strongly affected by the surrounding environment as they evolve in the solar wind. We study expansion of MCs, its consequent decrease in magnetic field intensity and mass density, and the possible evolution of the so-called global ideal-MHD invariants. Methods. In this work we analyze the evolution of a particular MC (observed in March 1998) using in situ observations made by two spacecraft approximately aligned with the Sun, the first one at 1 AU from the Sun and the second one at 5.4 AU. We describe the magnetic configuration of the MC using different models and compute relevant global quantities (magnetic fluxes, helicity, and energy) at both heliodistances. We also tracked this structure back to the Sun, to find out its solar source. Results. We find that the flux rope is significantly distorted at 5.4 AU. From the observed decay of magnetic field and mass density, we quantify how anisotropic is the expansion and the consequent deformation of the flux rope in favor of a cross section with an aspect ratio at 5.4 AU of ≈1.6 (larger in the direction perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun). We quantify the ideal-MHD invariants and magnetic energy at both locations, and find that invariants are almost conserved, while the magnetic energy decays as expected with the expansion rate found. Conclusions. The use of MHD invariants to link structures at the Sun and the interplanetary medium is supported by the results of this multi-spacecraft study. We also conclude that the local dimensionless expansion rate, which is computed from the velocity profile observed by a single-spacecraft, is very accurate for predicting the evolution of flux ropes in the solar wind.

**Author affiliation**: Nakwacki, Maria Soledad. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio; Argentina

**Author affiliation**: Dasso, Sergio Ricardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio; Argentina

**Author affiliation**: Démoulin, Pascal. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Observatoire de Paris; Francia

**Author affiliation**: Mandrini, Cristina Hemilse. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio; Argentina

**Author affiliation**: Gulisano, Adriana Maria. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio; Argentina

**Repository:** CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

**Publication Date:** 2013.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are routinely tracked with imagers in the interplanetary space, while magnetic clouds (MCs) properties are measured locally by spacecraft. However, both imager and in situ data do not provide any direct estimation of the general flux rope properties. Aims. The main aim of this study is to constrain the global shape of the flux rope axis from local measurements and to compare the results from in-situ data with imager observations. Methods. We performed a statistical analysis of the set of MCs observed by WIND spacecraft over 15 years in the vicinity of Earth. We analyzed the correlation between different MC parameters and studied the statistical distributions of the angles defining the local axis orientation. With the hypothesis of having a sample of MCs with a uniform distribution of spacecraft crossing along their axis, we show that a mean axis shape can be derived from the distribution of the axis orientation. As a complement, while heliospheric imagers do not typically observe MCs but only their sheath region, we analyze one event where the flux rope axis can be estimated from the STEREO imagers. Results. From the analysis of a set of theoretical models, we show that the distribution of the local axis orientation is strongly affected by the overall axis shape. Next, we derive the mean axis shape from the integration of the observed orientation distribution. This shape is robust because it is mostly determined from the overall shape of the distribution. Moreover, we find no dependence on the flux rope inclination on the ecliptic. Finally, the derived shape is fully consistent with the one derived from heliospheric imager observations of the June 2008 event. Conclusions. We have derived a mean shape of MC axis that only depends on one free parameter, the angular separation of the legs (as viewed from the Sun). This mean shape can be used in various contexts, such as studies of high-energy particles or space weather forecasts. © ESO, 2013.

**Author affiliation**: Dasso, S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Keywords:**
Magnetic fields; Solar-terrestrial relations; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Sun: heliosphere; Coronal mass ejection; High-energy particles; Orientation distributions; Solar-terrestrial relations; Space weather forecast; Statistical distribution; Sun: coronal mass ejection; Sun: heliosphere; Magnetic fields; Rope; Solar system; Weather forecasting; Interplanetary spacecraft.

**Repository:** Biblioteca Digital (UBA-FCEN). Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales

**Authors**:
Janvier, M.; Démoulin, Pascal; Dasso, Sergio Ricardo

**Publication Date:** 2013.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are routinely tracked with imagers in the interplanetary space, while magnetic clouds (MCs) properties are measured locally by spacecraft. However, both imager and in situ data do not provide any direct estimation of the general flux rope properties. Aims. The main aim of this study is to constrain the global shape of the flux rope axis from local measurements and to compare the results from in-situ data with imager observations. Methods. We performed a statistical analysis of the set of MCs observed by WIND spacecraft over 15 years in the vicinity of Earth. We analyzed the correlation between different MC parameters and studied the statistical distributions of the angles defining the local axis orientation. With the hypothesis of having a sample of MCs with a uniform distribution of spacecraft crossing along their axis, we show that a mean axis shape can be derived from the distribution of the axis orientation. As a complement, while heliospheric imagers do not typically observe MCs but only their sheath region, we analyze one event where the flux rope axis can be estimated from the STEREO imagers. Results. From the analysis of a set of theoretical models, we show that the distribution of the local axis orientation is strongly affected by the overall axis shape. Next, we derive the mean axis shape from the integration of the observed orientation distribution. This shape is robust because it is mostly determined from the overall shape of the distribution. Moreover, we find no dependence on the flux rope inclination on the ecliptic. Finally, the derived shape is fully consistent with the one derived from heliospheric imager observations of the June 2008 event. Conclusions. We have derived a mean shape of MC axis that only depends on one free parameter, the angular separation of the legs (as viewed from the Sun). This mean shape can be used in various contexts, such as studies of high-energy particles or space weather forecasts.

**Author affiliation**: Janvier, M.. Observatoire de Paris. LESIA; Francia;

**Author affiliation**: Démoulin, Pascal. Observatoire de Paris. LESIA; Francia;

**Author affiliation**: Dasso, Sergio Ricardo. Universidad Nacional de la Pampa. Facultad de Cs.exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Fisica; . Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio(i); Argentina

**Repository:** CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

**Authors**:
Janvier, M.; Démoulin, Pascal; Dasso, Sergio Ricardo

**Publication Date:** 2014.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

CONTEXT: Shocks are frequently detected by spacecraft in the interplanetary space. However, the in situ data of a shock do not provide direct information on its overall properties even when a following interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) is detected. AIMS: The main aim of this study is to constrain the general shape of ICME shocks with a statistical study of shock orientations. METHODS: We first associated a set of shocks detected near Earth over 10 years with a sample of ICMEs over the same period. We then analyzed the correlations between shock and ICME parameters and studied the statistical distributions of the local shock normal orientation. Supposing that shocks are uniformly detected all over their surface projected on the 1 AU sphere, we compared the shock normal distribution with synthetic distributions derived from an analytical shock shape model. Inversely, we derived a direct method to compute the typical general shape of ICME shocks by integrating observed distributions of the shock normal. RESULTS: We found very similar properties between shocks with and without an in situ detected ICME, so that most of the shocks detected at 1 AU are ICME-driven even when no ICME is detected. The statistical orientation of shock normals is compatible with a mean shape having a rotation symmetry around the Sun-apex line. The analytically modeled shape captures the main characteristics of the observed shock normal distribution. Next, by directly integrating the observed distribution, we derived the mean shock shape, which is found to be comparable for shocks with and without a detected ICME and weakly affected by the limited statistics of the observed distribution. We finally found a close correspondence between this statistical result and the leading edge of the ICME sheath that is observed with STEREO imagers. CONCLUSIONS: We have derived a mean shock shape that only depends on one free parameter. This mean shape can be used in various contexts, such as studies for high-energy particles or space weather forecasts.

**Author affiliation**: Janvier, M.. University of Dundee; Reino Unido

**Author affiliation**: Démoulin, Pascal. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique; Francia

**Author affiliation**: Dasso, Sergio Ricardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Física; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos; Argentina

**Repository:** CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

**Publication Date:** 2012.

**Language:** English.

**Abstract:**

Context. Relating in-situ measurements of relativistic solar particles to their parent activity in the corona requires understanding the magnetic structures that guide them from their acceleration site to the Earth. Relativistic particle events are observed at times of high solar activity, when transient magnetic structures such as interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) often shape the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). They may introduce interplanetary paths that are longer than nominal, and magnetic connections rooted far from the nominal Parker spiral. Aims. We present a detailed study of the IMF configurations during ten relativistic solar particle events of the 23rd activity cycle to elucidate the actual IMF configuration that guides the particles to the Earth, where they are measured by neutron monitors. Methods. We used magnetic field (MAG) and plasma parameter measurements (SWEPAM) from the ACE spacecraft and determined the interplanetary path lengths of energetic particles through a modified version of the velocity dispersion analysis based on energetic particle measurements with SoHO/ERNE. Results. We find that the majority (7/10) of the events is detected in the vicinity of an ICME. Their interplanetary path lengths are found to be longer (1.5-2.6 AU) than those of the two events propagating in the slow solar wind (1.3 AU). The longest apparent path length is found in an event within the fast solar wind, probably caused by enhanced pitch angle scattering. The derived path lengths imply that the first energetic and relativistic protons are released at the Sun at the same time as electron beam emitting type III radio bursts. Conclusions. The timing of the first high-energy particle arrival on Earth is mainly determined by the type of IMF in which the particles propagate. Initial arrival times are as expected from Parker's model in the slow solar wind, and significantly longer in or near transient structures such as ICMEs. © 2012 ESO.

**Author affiliation**: Dasso, S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Keywords:**
methods: data analysis; solar-terrestrial relations; Sun: heliosphere; Activity cycles; Arrival time; Energetic particle measurement; Energetic particles; Fast solar winds; High-energy particles; In-situ measurement; Interplanetary coronal mass ejections; Interplanetary magnetic fields; Methods:data analysis; Neutron monitors; Parker spiral; Path length; Pitch-angle scattering; Plasma parameter; Radio bursts; Relativistic particles; Relativistic solar particles; Solar activity; Solar-terrestrial relations; Transient structure; Velocity dispersion; Electron beams; Magnetic bubbles; Magnetic fields; Magnetic structure; Magnetoplasma; Relativity; Solar energy; Solar radiation; Solar system; Solar wind; Interplanetary spacecraft.

**Repository:** Biblioteca Digital (UBA-FCEN). Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales