**Fecha de publicación:** 2009.

**Idioma:** inglés.

**Resumen:**

Context. A magnetic cloud (MC) is a magnetic flux rope in the solar wind (SW), which, at 1 AU, is observed ∼2-5 days after its expulsion from the Sun. The associated solar eruption is observed as a coronal mass ejection (CME).Aims. Both the in situ observations of plasma velocity distribution and the increase in their size with solar distance demonstrate that MCs are strongly expanding structures. The aim of this work is to find the main causes of this expansion and to derive a model to explain the plasma velocity profiles typically observed inside MCs.Methods. We model the flux rope evolution as a series of force-free field states with two extreme limits: (a) ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) and (b) minimization of the magnetic energy with conserved magnetic helicity. We consider cylindrical flux ropes to reduce the problem to the integration of ordinary differential equations. This allows us to explore a wide variety of magnetic fields at a broad range of distances to the Sun.Results. We demonstrate that the rapid decrease in the total SW pressure with solar distance is the main driver of the flux-rope radial expansion. Other effects, such as the internal over-pressure, the radial distribution, and the amount of twist within the flux rope have a much weaker influence on the expansion. We demonstrate that any force-free flux rope will have a self-similar expansion if its total boundary pressure evolves as the inverse of its length to the fourth power. With the total pressure gradient observed in the SW, the radial expansion of flux ropes is close to self-similar with a nearly linear radial velocity profile across the flux rope, as observed. Moreover, we show that the expansion rate is proportional to the radius and to the global velocity away from the Sun.Conclusions. The simple and universal law found for the radial expansion of flux ropes in the SW predicts the typical size, magnetic structure, and radial velocity of MCs at various solar distances. © 2009 ESO.

**Afiliación de los autores**: Dasso, S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Palabras claves:**
interplanetary medium; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Sun: magnetic fields; Boundary pressure; Coronal mass ejection; Cylindrical flux ropes; Expansion rate; Flux ropes; Force free fields; In-situ observations; interplanetary medium; Magnetic clouds; Magnetic energies; Magnetic flux ropes; Magnetic helicity; Plasma velocity; Radial distributions; Radial expansions; Radial velocity; Self-similar; Solar eruption; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Sun: magnetic fields; Astrophysics; Boundary layer flow; Energy conservation; Expansion; Fluid dynamics; Magnetic fields; Magnetic flux; Magnetic structure; Magnetohydrodynamics; Ordinary differential equations; Pressure gradient; Solar wind; Sun; Velocity; Velocity distribution; Solar energy.

**Repositorio:** Biblioteca Digital (UBA-FCEN). Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales

**Fecha de publicación:** 2013.

**Idioma:** inglés.

**Resumen:**

Context. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). One property of MCs is the presence of a magnetic flux rope. Is the difference between ICMEs with and without MCs intrinsic or rather due to an observational bias? Aims. As the spacecraft has no relationship with the MC trajectory, the frequency distribution of MCs versus the spacecraft distance to the MCs' axis is expected to be approximately flat. However, Lepping & Wu (2010, Ann. Geophys., 28, 1539) confirmed that it is a strongly decreasing function of the estimated impact parameter. Is a flux rope more frequently undetected for larger impact parameter? Methods. In order to answer the questions above, we explore the parameter space of flux rope models, especially the aspect ratio, boundary shape, and current distribution. The proposed models are analyzed as MCs by fitting a circular linear force-free field to the magnetic field computed along simulated crossings. Results. We find that the distribution of the twist within the flux rope and the non-detection due to too low field rotation angle or magnitude only weakly affect the expected frequency distribution of MCs versus impact parameter. However, the estimated impact parameter is increasingly biased to lower values as the flux rope cross section is more elongated orthogonally to the crossing trajectory. The observed distribution of MCs is a natural consequence of a flux rope cross section flattened on average by a factor 2 to 3 depending on the magnetic twist profile. However, the faster MCs at 1 AU, with V > 550 km s-1, present an almost uniform distribution of MCs vs. impact parameter, which is consistent with round-shaped flux ropes, in contrast with the slower ones. Conclusions. We conclude that the sampling of MCs at various distances from the axis does not significantly affect their detection. The large part of ICMEs without MCs could be due to a too strict criteria for MCs or to the fact that these ICMEs are encountered outside their flux rope or near the leg region, or they do not contain a flux rope. © 2013 ESO.

**Afiliación de los autores**: Dasso, S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Palabras claves:**
Magnetic fields; Solar-terrestrial relations; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Sun: heliosphere; Affect detection; Boundary shapes; Current distribution; Decreasing functions; Flux rope model; Flux ropes; Force free fields; Frequency distributions; Heliospheres; Impact-parameter; Interplanetary coronal mass ejections; Large parts; Low field; Magnetic clouds; Magnetic flux ropes; Natural consequences; Non-detection; Parameter spaces; Rotation angles; Solar-terrestrial relations; Spacecraft trajectories; Sun: coronal mass ejection; Uniform distribution; Aspect ratio; Computer simulation; Magnetic fields; Magnetic flux; Planetary surface analysis; Spacecraft; Trajectories; Parameter estimation.

**Repositorio:** Biblioteca Digital (UBA-FCEN). Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales

**Autores**:
<div class="autor_fcen" id="6067">Nakwacki, M.S.</div>; <div class="autor_fcen" id="2288">Dasso, S.</div>; Démoulin, P.; <div class="autor_fcen" id="5317">Mandrini, C.H.</div>; <div class="autor_fcen" id="4119">Gulisano, A.M.</div>

**Fecha de publicación:** 2011.

**Idioma:** inglés.

**Resumen:**

Context. Significant quantities of magnetized plasma are transported from the Sun to the interstellar medium via interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a particular subset of ICMEs, forming large-scale magnetic flux ropes. Their evolution in the solar wind is complex and mainly determined by their own magnetic forces and the interaction with the surrounding solar wind. Aims. Magnetic clouds are strongly affected by the surrounding environment as they evolve in the solar wind. We study expansion of MCs, its consequent decrease in magnetic field intensity and mass density, and the possible evolution of the so-called global ideal-MHD invariants. Methods. In this work we analyze the evolution of a particular MC (observed in March 1998) using in situ observations made by two spacecraft approximately aligned with the Sun, the first one at 1 AU from the Sun and the second one at 5.4 AU. We describe the magnetic configuration of the MC using different models and compute relevant global quantities (magnetic fluxes, helicity, and energy) at both heliodistances. We also tracked this structure back to the Sun, to find out its solar source. Results. We find that the flux rope is significantly distorted at 5.4 AU. From the observed decay of magnetic field and mass density, we quantify how anisotropic is the expansion and the consequent deformation of the flux rope in favor of a cross section with an aspect ratio at 5.4 AU of ≈ 1.6 (larger in the direction perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun). We quantify the ideal-MHD invariants and magnetic energy at both locations, and find that invariants are almost conserved, while the magnetic energy decays as expected with the expansion rate found. Conclusions. The use of MHD invariants to link structures at the Sun and the interplanetary medium is supported by the results of this multi-spacecraft study. We also conclude that the local dimensionless expansion rate, which is computed from the velocity profile observed by a single-spacecraft, is very accurate for predicting the evolution of flux ropes in the solar wind. © 2011 ESO.

**Afiliación de los autores**: Nakwacki, M.S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Afiliación de los autores**: Dasso, S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Afiliación de los autores**: Mandrini, C.H. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Afiliación de los autores**: Gulisano, A.M. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Palabras claves:**
Magnetic fields; Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); Solar wind; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Sun: heliosphere; Sun: magnetic topology; Cross section; Dynamical evolution; Expansion rate; Flux ropes; Global quantities; Helicities; In-situ observations; Interplanetary coronal mass ejections; Interplanetary medium; Interstellar mediums; Link structure; Magnetic clouds; Magnetic configuration; Magnetic energies; Magnetic flux ropes; Magnetic force; Magnetic-field intensity; Magnetized plasmas; Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); Mass densities; Radial direction; Solar source; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Surrounding environment; Velocity profiles; Aspect ratio; Clouds; Expansion; Interplanetary spacecraft; Magnetic fields; Magnetic flux; Magnetoplasma; Planetary surface analysis; Solar system; Solar wind; Wind; Magnetohydrodynamics.

**Repositorio:** Biblioteca Digital (UBA-FCEN). Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales

**Fecha de publicación:** 2009.

**Idioma:** inglés.

**Resumen:**

Context. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are formed by magnetic flux ropes that are ejected from the Sun as coronal mass ejections. These structures generally have low plasma beta and travel through the interplanetary medium interacting with the surrounding solar wind. Thus, the dynamical evolution of the internal magnetic structure of a MC is a consequence of both the conditions of its environment and of its own dynamical laws, which are mainly dominated by magnetic forces.Aims. With in-situ observations the magnetic field is only measured along the trajectory of the spacecraft across the MC. Therefore, a magnetic model is needed to reconstruct the magnetic configuration of the encountered MC. The main aim of the present work is to extend the widely used cylindrical model to arbitrary cross-section shapes.Methods. The flux rope boundary is parametrized to account for a broad range of shapes. Then, the internal structure of the flux rope is computed by expressing the magnetic field as a series of modes of a linear force-free field.Results. We analyze the magnetic field profile along straight cuts through the flux rope, in order to simulate the spacecraft crossing through a MC. We find that the magnetic field orientation is only weakly affected by the shape of the MC boundary. Therefore, the MC axis can approximately be found by the typical methods previously used (e.g., minimum variance). The boundary shape affects the magnetic field strength most. The measurement of how much the field strength peaks along the crossing provides an estimation of the aspect ratio of the flux-rope cross-section. The asymmetry of the field strength between the front and the back of the MC, after correcting for the time evolution (i.e., its aging during the observation of the MC), provides an estimation of the cross-section global bending. A flat or/and bent cross-section requires a large anisotropy of the total pressure imposed at the MC boundary by the surrounding medium.Conclusions. The new theoretical model developed here relaxes the cylindrical symmetry hypothesis. It is designed to estimate the cross-section shape of the flux rope using the in-situ data of one spacecraft. This allows a more accurate determination of the global quantities, such as magnetic fluxes and helicity. These quantities are especially important for both linking an observed MC to its solar source and for understanding the corresponding evolution. © 2009 ESO.

**Afiliación de los autores**: Dasso, S. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; Argentina.

**Palabras claves:**
Interplanetary medium; Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs); Sun: magnetic fields; Arbitrary cross section; Boundary shapes; Coronal mass ejection; Cylindrical models; Cylindrical symmetry; Dynamical evolution; Field strengths; Flux ropes; Global quantities; Helicities; In-situ data; In-situ observations; Internal structure; Interplanetary medium; Large anisotropy; Magnetic clouds; Magnetic configuration; Magnetic field orientations; Magnetic field profile; Magnetic field strengths; Magnetic flux ropes; Magnetic models; Minimum variance; Solar source; Sun: coronal mass ejection; Sun: magnetic field; Theoretical models; Time evolutions; Total pressure; Aspect ratio; Astrophysics; Boundary layer flow; Interplanetary spacecraft; Magnetic fields; Magnetic flux; Magnetic structure; Planetary surface analysis; Solar wind; Sun; Semiconductor counters.

**Repositorio:** Biblioteca Digital (UBA-FCEN). Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales