Publication Date: 2017.
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Verbenaceae originated and initially diversified in South America in wet forest habitats. They have diversified extensively in arid habitats in both South and North America. This study aims to understand the origin of the North American arid‐land members of Verbenaceae. METHODS: A phylogenetic approach is used to examine four genera (Aloysia, Citharexylum, Glandularia, Verbena) in three distinct clades with representatives in North American deserts and disjunct South and North American distributions. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Analyses included both plastid and nuclear DNA regions and include the first study of Citharexylum and an expanded sampling of tribe Verbeneae (Glandularia and Verbena). Ancestral areas were reconstructed for each group. KEY RESULTS: North American desert species of Aloysia and Glandularia were likely derived from ancestors in arid temperate South America, perhaps by long‐distance dispersal. The pattern for Verbena was less clear, with evidence from plastid DNA implicating an Andean dispersal route to the North American clade, whereas nuclear data suggest that the Andean and North American species resulted from independent dispersals from southern South America. A previously unrecognized clade of Andean Verbeneae was discovered, raising the possibility of an Andean origin of Verbena or Verbena and Glandularia. North American desert species of Citharexylum represent multiple, independent origins from mesic habitat ancestors in Mesoamerica. CONCLUSIONS: North American arid‐zone Verbenaceae are derived from South and Central American ancestors via multiple avenues, including long‐distance, amphitropical dispersal, Andean migration corridors, and in situ evolution of desert‐adapted species.
Author affiliation: Frost, Laura A.. University of Washington; Estados Unidos
Author affiliation: Tyson, Sarah McAdams. University of Washington; Estados Unidos
Author affiliation: Lu Irving, Patricia. University of Washington; Estados Unidos. University of Arizona; Estados Unidos
Author affiliation: O'Leary, Nataly Cristina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion; Argentina
Author affiliation: Olmstead, Richard G.. University of Washington; Estados Unidos
Repository: CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas