Publication Date: 2014.
During phytoplankton monitoring in the Beagle Channel (≈54°52′ S, 67°32′ W) a previously undetected Alexandrium species was observed in coincidence with mouse bioassay toxicity. Detailed thecal plates analysis using epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of the Alexandrium ostenfeldii species complex, showing a mixture of the diagnostic features usually used to discriminate between the morphospecies A. ostenfeldii and A. peruvianum. Cells of the A. ostenfeldii complex were commonly observed during spring after the main annual diatom bloom, when temperatures and salinities were respectively around 7.5–10 °C and 30–30.5 psu, and nutrients showed a seasonal decrease. Toxin analysis by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed the production of 13-desmethyl spirolide C and 20-methyl spirolide G in cell cultures. The cellular contain of spirolides during exponential phase growth was 0.5906 ± 0.0032 and 0.1577 ± 0.0023 pg cell−1 for 13-desMe-C and 20-Me-G, respectively. A third unknown compound, with a structure resembling that of spirolides was also detected in culture. Moreover, an additional compound with a similar m/z (692) than that of 13-desMe-C but presenting a higher retention time (Rt = 40.5 min) was found in high proportions in mussel samples. PSP toxins were present at low concentration in mussels but were not detected in cultures. These results extend the world-wide distribution of toxic strains of the A. ostenfeldii complex to the Beagle Channel (southern South America), where toxic events have been traditionally linked to the presence of Alexandrium catenella. This is the first confirmed occurrence of spirolides in mussels and plankton from Argentina, which highlights the importance of monitoring these toxins and their producing organisms to protect public health and improve the management of shellfish resources.
Author affiliation: Almandoz, Gaston Osvaldo. Universidad Nacional de la Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. Division Ficología; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina
Author affiliation: Montoya, Nora Gladys. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Pesquero; Argentina
Author affiliation: Hernando, Marcelo Pablo. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica; Argentina
Author affiliation: Benavides, Hugo R.. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Pesquero; Argentina
Author affiliation: Carignan, Mario O.. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Pesquero; Argentina
Author affiliation: Ferrario, Martha Elba. Universidad Nacional de la Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. Division Ficología; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina
Repository: CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas