Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity

Harpole, W. Stanley; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Lind, Eric M.; Firn, Jennifer; Adler, Peter B.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Chase, Jonathan; Fay, Philip A.; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Williams, Ryan; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Chaneton, Enrique Jose; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E.; D'Antonio, Carla; Davies, Kendi F.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Wragg, Peter D.
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Niche dimensionality provides a general theoretical explanation for biodiversity-more niches, defined by more limiting factors, allow for more ways that species can coexist. Because plant species compete for the same set of limiting resources, theory predicts that addition of a limiting resource eliminates potential trade-offs, reducing the number of species that can coexist. Multiple nutrient limitation of plant production is common and therefore fertilization may reduce diversity by reducing the number or dimensionality of belowground limiting factors. At the same time, nutrient addition, by increasing biomass, should ultimately shift competition from belowground nutrients towards a one-dimensional competitive trade-off for light. Here we show that plant species diversity decreased when a greater number of limiting nutrients were added across 45 grassland sites from a multi-continent experimental network. The number of added nutrients predicted diversity loss, even after controlling for effects of plant biomass, and even where biomass production was not nutrient-limited. We found that elevated resource supply reduced niche dimensionality and diversity and increased both productivity and compositional turnover. Our results point to the importance of understanding dimensionality in ecological systems that are undergoing diversity loss in response to multiple global change factors.
Fil: Harpole, W. Stanley. Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg; Alemania
Fil: Sullivan, Lauren L.. University of Minnesota; Estados Unidos
Fil: Lind, Eric M.. University of Minnesota; Estados Unidos
Fil: Firn, Jennifer. Queensland University of Technology; Australia
Fil: Adler, Peter B.. State University of Utah; Estados Unidos
Fil: Borer, Elizabeth T.. University of Minnesota; Estados Unidos
Fil: Chase, Jonathan. Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg; Alemania
Fil: Fay, Philip A.. USDA-ARS Grassland Soil and Water Research Lab; Estados Unidos
Fil: Hautier, Yann. Utrecht University; Países Bajos
Fil: Hillebrand, Helmut. University of Oldenburg; Alemania
Fil: MacDougall, Andrew S.. University of Guelph; Canadá
Fil: Seabloom, Eric W.. University of Minnesota; Estados Unidos
Fil: Williams, Ryan. University of Iowa; Estados Unidos
Fil: Bakker, Jonathan D.. University of Washington; Estados Unidos
Fil: Cadotte, Marc W.. University of Toronto; Canadá
Fil: Chaneton, Enrique Jose. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía; Argentina
Fil: Chu, Chengjin. Sun Yat-sen University; China
Fil: Cleland, Elsa E.. University of California at San Diego; Estados Unidos
Fil: D'Antonio, Carla. University of California; Estados Unidos
Fil: Davies, Kendi F.. University of Colorado; Estados Unidos
Fil: Gruner, Daniel S.. University of Maryland; Estados Unidos
Fil: Hagenah, Nicole. University of KwaZulu-Natal; Sudáfrica
Fil: Kirkman, Kevin. University of KwaZulu-Natal; Sudáfrica
Fil: Knops, Johannes M. H.. Universidad de Nebraska - Lincoln; Estados Unidos
Fil: La Pierre, Kimberly J.. University of California at Berkeley; Estados Unidos
Fil: McCulley, Rebecca L.. University of Kentucky; Estados Unidos
Fil: Moore, Joslin L.. Monash University; Australia
Fil: Morgan, John W.. La Trobe University; Australia
Fil: Prober, Suzanne M.. CSIRO Land and Water; Australia
Fil: Risch, Anita C.. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; Suiza
Fil: Schuetz, Martin. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; Suiza
Fil: Stevens, Carly J.. Lancaster University; Reino Unido
Fil: Wragg, Peter D.. University of Yale; Estados Unidos
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