Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: A synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments

Authors
Wilcox, Kevin R.; Shi, Zheng; Gherardi, Laureano; Lemoine, Nathan P.; Koerner, Sally E.; Hoover, David L.; Bork, Edward; Byrne, Kerry M.; Cahill Jr., James; Collins, Scott L.; Evans, Sarah; Gilgen, Anna K.; Holub, Petr; Jiang, Lifen; Knapp, Alan K.; LeCain, Daniel; Liang, Junyi; García Palacios, Pablo; Peñuelas, Josep; Pockman, William T.; Smith, Melinda D.; Sun, Shanghua; White, Shannon R.; Yahdjian, María Laura; Zhu, Kai; Luo, Yiqi
Publication Year
2017
Language
English
Format
article
Status
Published version
Description
Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased interannual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP. Yet, findings have been diverse and substantial uncertainty still surrounds generalities describing patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to altered precipitation. Additionally, we do not know whether previously observed correlations between NPP and precipitation remain accurate when precipitation changes become extreme. We synthesized results from 83 case studies of experimental precipitation manipulations in grasslands worldwide. We used meta-analytical techniques to search for generalities and asymmetries of aboveground NPP (ANPP) and belowground NPP (BNPP) responses to both the direction and magnitude of precipitation change. Sensitivity (i.e., productivity response standardized by the amount of precipitation change) of BNPP was similar under precipitation additions and reductions, but ANPP was more sensitive to precipitation additions than reductions; this was especially evident in drier ecosystems. Additionally, overall relationships between the magnitude of productivity responses and the magnitude of precipitation change were saturating in form. The saturating form of this relationship was likely driven by ANPP responses to very extreme precipitation increases, although there were limited studies imposing extreme precipitation change, and there was considerable variation among experiments. This highlights the importance of incorporating gradients of manipulations, ranging from extreme drought to extreme precipitation increases into future climate change experiments. Additionally, policy and land management decisions related to global change scenarios should consider how ANPP and BNPP responses may differ, and that ecosystem responses to extreme events might not be predicted from relationships found under moderate environmental changes.
Fil: Wilcox, Kevin R.. University of Oklahoma; Estados Unidos
Fil: Shi, Zheng. University of Oklahoma; Estados Unidos
Fil: Gherardi, Laureano. Arizona State University; Estados Unidos
Fil: Lemoine, Nathan P.. State University of Colorado - Fort Collins; Estados Unidos
Fil: Koerner, Sally E.. University of South Florida; Estados Unidos
Fil: Hoover, David L.. United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service; Argentina
Fil: Bork, Edward. University of Alberta; Canadá
Fil: Byrne, Kerry M.. Humboldt State University; Estados Unidos
Fil: Cahill Jr., James. University of Alberta; Canadá
Fil: Collins, Scott L.. University of New Mexico; Estados Unidos
Fil: Evans, Sarah. Michigan State University; Estados Unidos
Fil: Gilgen, Anna K.. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich; Suiza
Fil: Holub, Petr. Czech Academy of Sciences; República Checa
Fil: Jiang, Lifen. University of Oklahoma; Estados Unidos
Fil: Knapp, Alan K.. State University of Colorado - Fort Collins; Estados Unidos
Fil: LeCain, Daniel. United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service; Argentina
Fil: Liang, Junyi. University of Oklahoma; Estados Unidos
Fil: García Palacios, Pablo. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos; España
Fil: Peñuelas, Josep. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Centre de Recerca Ecológica I Aplicacions Forestals; España. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; España
Fil: Pockman, William T.. University of New Mexico; Estados Unidos
Fil: Smith, Melinda D.. State University of Colorado - Fort Collins; Estados Unidos
Fil: Sun, Shanghua. Northwest A & F University; China
Fil: White, Shannon R.. Government of Alberta; Canadá
Fil: Yahdjian, María Laura. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. ; Argentina
Fil: Zhu, Kai. Rice University; Estados Unidos. University of Texas; Estados Unidos
Fil: Luo, Yiqi. University of Oklahoma; Estados Unidos
Subject
ABOVEGROUND NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY
BELOWGROUND NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY
BIOMASS ALLOCATION
CLIMATE CHANGE
GRASSLANDS
META-ANALYSIS
ROOT BIOMASS
Otras Ciencias Biológicas
Ciencias Biológicas
CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS
Access level
Restricted access
License
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ar/
Repository
CONICET Digital (CONICET)
Institution
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
OAI Identifier
oai:ri.conicet.gov.ar:11336/51638