A hot knot of toads: Aggregation provides thermal benefits to metamorphic Andean toads

Authors
Espinoza, Robert E.; Quinteros, Andres Sebastian
Publication Year
2008
Language
English
Format
article
Status
Published version
Description
We tested the thermal benefits of aggregation ("knotting") for a high-elevation (>4300 m) population of metamorphic Rhinella spinulosa. Fewer knots were recorded when the sun was low on the horizon and aggregating toads dispersed under cloudy skies or when experimentally shaded. Body temperatures of sun-exposed toads averaged 2.3 °C higher when in knots than when solitary. Proximity to water and similarity in body size between aggregating and solitary toads suggest that grouping is not imposed by a need for reducing evaporative water loss. Aggregation apparently provides thermal benefits, which should translate into faster growth.
Fil: Espinoza, Robert E.. California State University; Estados Unidos
Fil: Quinteros, Andres Sebastian. Universidad Nacional de Salta. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales. Cátedra de Anatomia Comparada; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Salta; Argentina
Subject
AGGREGATION
ANDEAN TOAD
ANURAN
ARGENTINA
BASKING
FROG
HIGH ELEVATION
HOT SPRINGS
PUNA
RHINELLA SPINULOSA
Otras Ciencias Biológicas
Ciencias Biológicas
CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS
Access level
Restricted access
License
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ar/
Repository
CONICET Digital (CONICET)
Institution
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
OAI Identifier
oai:ri.conicet.gov.ar:11336/70337