Juvenile exposure to a high fat diet promotes behavioral and limbic alterations in the absence of obesity

Authors
Vinuesa, María Angeles; Pomilio, Carlos Javier; Menafra, Martín; Bonaventura, Maria Marta; Garay, Laura Ines; Mercogliano, María Florencia; Schillaci, Roxana; Lux, Victoria Adela R.; Brites, Fernando Daniel; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia Eugenia
Publication Year
2016
Language
English
Format
article
Status
Published version
Description
The incidence of metabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome have seriously increased in the last decades. These diseases - with growing impact in modern societies - constitute major risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), sharing insulin resistance, inflammation and associated cognitive impairment. However, cerebral cellular and molecular pathways involved are not yet clearly understood. Thus, our aim was to study the impact of a non-severe high fat diet (HFD) that resembles western-like alimentary habits, particularly involving juvenile stages where the brain physiology and connectivity are in plain maturation. To this end, one-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were given either a control diet or HFD during 4 months. Exposure to HFD produced metabolic alterations along with changes in behavioral and central parameters, in the absence of obesity. Two-month-old HFD mice showed increased glycemia and plasmatic IL1β but these values normalized at the end of the HFD protocol at 5 months of age, probably representing an acute response that is compensated at later stages. After four months of HFD exposure, mice presented dyslipidemia, increased Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity, hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation. Alterations in the behavioral profile of the HFD group were shown by the impediment in nest building behavior, deficiencies in short and mid-term spatial memories, anxious and depressive- like behavior. Regarding the latter disruptions in emotional processing, we found an increased neural activity in the amygdala, shown by a greater number of c-Fos+ nuclei. We found that hippocampal adult neurogenesis was decreased in HFD mice, showing diminished cell proliferation measured as Ki67+ cells and neuronal differentiation in SGZ by doublecortin labeling. These phenomena were accompanied by a neuroinflammatory and insulin-resistant state in the hippocampus, depicted by a reactive phenotype in Iba1+ microglia cells (increased in number and soma size) and an impaired response to insulin given by decreased phosphorylated Akt levels and increased levels of inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS1. Our data portray a set of alterations in behavioral and neural parameters as a consequence of an early-life exposure to a quite moderate high fat diet, many of which can resemble AD-related features. These results highly emphasize the need to study how metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders are interrelated in deep, thus allowing the finding of successful preventive and therapeutic approaches.
Fil: Vinuesa, María Angeles. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Departamento de Química Biológica; Argentina
Fil: Pomilio, Carlos Javier. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Química Biológica; Argentina
Fil: Menafra, Martín. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica; Argentina
Fil: Bonaventura, Maria Marta. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina
Fil: Garay, Laura Ines. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina
Fil: Mercogliano, María Florencia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina
Fil: Schillaci, Roxana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina
Fil: Lux, Victoria Adela R.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina
Fil: Brites, Fernando Daniel. Universidad Nacional de Rosario. Facultad de Cs.bioquímicas y Farmaceuticas. Departamento de Bioquímica Clinica; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina
Fil: Beauquis, Juan. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Química Biológica; Argentina
Fil: Saravia, Flavia Eugenia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Química Biológica; Argentina
Subject
INSULIN
NEUROGENESIS
HYPPOCAMPUS
HIGH FAT DIET
Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
Medicina Básica
CIENCIAS MÉDICAS Y DE LA SALUD
Neurociencias
Medicina Básica
CIENCIAS MÉDICAS Y DE LA SALUD
Access level
Restricted access
License
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ar/
Repository
CONICET Digital (CONICET)
Institution
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
OAI Identifier
oai:ri.conicet.gov.ar:11336/24232