Comparative sensitivity among early life stages of the South American toad to cypermethrin-based pesticide

Authors
Svartz, Gabriela Veronica; Aronzon, Carolina Mariel; Perez Coll, Cristina Silvia
Publication Year
2015
Language
English
Format
article
Status
Published version
Description
Cypermethrin is one of the most widely used pesticides due to its low mammalian and bird toxicity, but it is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of a commercial formulation of cypermethrin on the embryo–larval development of Rhinella arenarum. An ecological risk assessment based on the hazard quotient (HQ) approach was performed. The results showed that cypermethrin toxicity was stage-dependent and dramatically increased during the larval period. Thus, larvae were more sensitive than embryos, obtaining at the end of the experiment a 336-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of 0.65 μg cypermethrin/L. Cypermethrin exposure caused morphological abnormalities such as general underdevelopment, edema, gill malformations, and behavioral alterations as hyperkinesia and spasmodic contractions. The 168-h teratogenic index was 5, implying a high risk for embryos to be malformed in the absence of significant embryonic lethality. Based on the results of the toxicity effects and the ecological risk assessed (HQ for chronic exposure > level of concern), this pesticide should be considered as a direct (effects on survival) or indirect (severe sublethal effects) risk for conservation purposes of this amphibian in agroecosystems.
Fil: Svartz, Gabriela Veronica. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Martín. Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología; Argentina
Fil: Aronzon, Carolina Mariel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Martín. Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología; Argentina
Fil: Perez Coll, Cristina Silvia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Martín. Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología; Argentina
Subject
Cypermethrin
Amphibians
Embryo–larval development
Stage-dependent susceptibility
Toxicity
Standardized bioassays
Meteorología y Ciencias Atmosféricas
Ciencias de la Tierra y relacionadas con el Medio Ambiente
CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS
Access level
Restricted access
License
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ar/
Repository
CONICET Digital (CONICET)
Institution
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
OAI Identifier
oai:ri.conicet.gov.ar:11336/46881