A standardized set of metrics to assess and monitor tree invasions

Wilson, John R. U.; Caplat, Paul; Dickie, Ian A.; Hui, Can; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Nuñez, Martin Andres; Pauchard, Anibal; Rejmanek, Marcel; Richardson, David M.; Robertson, Mark P.; Spear, Dian; Webber, Bruce L.; Van Wilgen, Brian W.; Zenni, Rafael D.
Publication Year
Published version
Scientists, managers, and policy-makers need functional and effective metrics to improve our understanding and management of biological invasions. Such metrics would help to assess progress towards management goals, increase compatibility across administrative borders, and facilitate comparisons between invasions. Here we outline key characteristics of tree invasions (status, abundance, spatial extent, and impact), discuss how each of these characteristics changes through time, and examine potential metrics to describe and monitor them. We recommend quantifying tree invasions using six metrics: (a) current status in the region; (b) potential status; (c) the number of foci requiring management; (d) area of occupancy (AOO) (i.e. compressed canopy area or net infestation); (e) extent of occurrence (EOO) (i.e. range size or gross infestation); and (f) observations of current and potential impact. For each metric we discuss how they can be parameterised (e.g. we include a practical method for classifying the current stage of invasion for trees following Blackburn?s unified framework for biological invasions); their potential management value (e.g. EOO provides an indication of the extent over which management is needed); and how they can be used in concert (e.g. combining AOO and EOO can provide insights into invasion dynamics; and we use potential status and threat together to develop a simple risk analysis tool). Based on these metrics, we propose a standardised template for reporting tree invasions that we hope will facilitate cross-species and inter-regional comparison. While we feel this represents a valuable step towards standardised reporting, there is an urgent need to develop more consistent metrics for impact and threat, and for many specific purposes additional metrics are still needed (e.g. detectability is required to assess the feasibility of eradication).
Fil: Wilson, John R. U.. Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens; Sudáfrica. Stellenbosch University; Sudáfrica
Fil: Caplat, Paul. Lund University; Suecia
Fil: Dickie, Ian A.. Crown Research Institutes. Landcare Research; Nueva Zelanda. Lincoln University; Nueva Zelanda
Fil: Hui, Can. Stellenbosch University; Sudáfrica
Fil: Maxwell, Bruce D.. State University Of Montana; Estados Unidos
Fil: Nuñez, Martin Andres. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Patagonia Norte. Instituto de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente; Argentina. Universidad Nacional del Comahue; Argentina
Fil: Pauchard, Anibal. Universidad de Concepción; Chile
Fil: Rejmanek, Marcel. University of California; Estados Unidos
Fil: Richardson, David M.. Stellenbosch University; Sudáfrica
Fil: Robertson, Mark P.. University of Pretoria; Sudáfrica
Fil: Spear, Dian. Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens; Sudáfrica. Stellenbosch University; Sudáfrica
Fil: Webber, Bruce L.. University of Western Australia; Australia. CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences; Australia
Fil: Van Wilgen, Brian W.. Stellenbosch University; Sudáfrica
Fil: Zenni, Rafael D.. University Of Tennessee; Estados Unidos
Ciencias Biológicas
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Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
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