Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges

Authors
Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto Osvaldo; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzman, Cecilia Griselda; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel Leonardo; Yamada, Yasuhiro
Publication Year
2016
Language
English
Format
article
Status
Published version
Description
We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing, and pop-up width from model to nature.
Fil: Schreurs, Guido. University of Bern; Suiza
Fil: Buiter, Susanne J. H.. University of Oslo; Noruega. Norges Geologiske Undersekelse; Noruega
Fil: Boutelier, Jennifer. University of Toronto; Canadá
Fil: Burberry, Caroline. Uppsala Universitet; Suecia
Fil: Callot, Jean-Paul. Ifp Energies Nouvelles; Francia
Fil: Cavozzi, Cristian. Università di Parma; Italia
Fil: Cerca, Mariano. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; México
Fil: Chen, Jian-Hong. National Taiwan University; República de China
Fil: Cristallini, Ernesto Osvaldo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas; Argentina. Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica; Chile
Fil: Cruden, Alexander R.. University of Toronto; Canadá
Fil: Cruz, Leonardo. University of Stanford; Estados Unidos
Fil: Daniel, Jean-Marc. Ifp Energies Nouvelles; Francia
Fil: Da Poian, Gabriela. Universidad de Buenos Aires; Argentina
Fil: Garcia, Victor H.. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas; Argentina
Fil: Gomes, Caroline J. S.. Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto; Brasil
Fil: Grall, Céline. Ifp Energies Nouvelles; Francia
Fil: Guillot, Yannick. University Of Lille; Francia
Fil: Guzman, Cecilia Griselda. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Estudios Andinos ; Argentina
Fil: Hidayah, Triyani Nur. State University of New Jersey; Estados Unidos
Fil: Hilley, George. University of Stanford; Estados Unidos
Fil: Klinkmüller, Matthias. University of Bern; Suiza
Fil: Koyi, Hemin A.. Uppsala Universitet; Suecia
Fil: Lu, Chia-Yu. National Taiwan University; República de China
Fil: Maillot, Bertrand. Universite de Cergy-Pontoise; Francia
Fil: Meriaux, Catherine. Monash University; Australia
Fil: Nilfouroushan, Faramarz. Uppsala Universitet; Suecia
Fil: Pan, Chang-Chih. National Taiwan University; Suecia
Fil: Pillot, Daniel. Ifp Energies Nouvelles; Francia
Fil: Portillo, Rodrigo. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; México
Fil: Rosenau, Matthias. German Research Centre for Geosciences; Alemania
Fil: Schellart, Wouter P.. Monash University; Australia
Fil: Schlische, Roy W.. State University of New Jersey; Estados Unidos
Fil: Take, Andy. Queens University; Canadá
Fil: Vendeville, Bruno. Laboratoire D'oceanologie Et de Geosciences; Francia
Fil: Vergnaud, Marine. Ifp Energies Nouvelles; Francia
Fil: Vettori, Matteo. Università di Parma; Italia
Fil: Wang, Shih-Hsien. National Taiwan University; República de China
Fil: Withjack, Martha O.. State University of New Jersey; Estados Unidos
Fil: Yagupsky, Daniel Leonardo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina
Fil: Yamada, Yasuhiro. Kyoto University; Japón
Subject
ANALOGUE MODELING
BENCHMARKING
BRITTLE WEDGES
COHESION
CRITICAL TAPER
FRICTION
SAND
SHEAR ZONES
THRUST WEDGES
Meteorología y Ciencias Atmosféricas
Ciencias de la Tierra y relacionadas con el Medio Ambiente
CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS
Access level
Restricted access
License
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ar/
Repository
CONICET Digital (CONICET)
Institution
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
OAI Identifier
oai:ri.conicet.gov.ar:11336/60517