Derivation of plaint growth coeficients for the use in wind erosion models in Argentina

Authors
Mendez, Mariano Javier; Buschiazzo, Daniel Eduardo
Publication Year
2008
Language
English
Format
article
Status
Published version
Description
Relationships between wind erosion soil loss ratio (SLR, the quotient between the soil loss in a ground cover and a bare and smooth soil) and the percent of soil coverage with plant residues or canopy have been mostly obtained by means of wind tunnel experiments where fluid-dynamic parameters, driven in the nature by climatic conditions, can be maintained constant. To test the behavior of SLR under natural conditions, we compared wind erosion measured in the field in a semiarid environment of Argentina, during 3 sunflower (Helianthus annus) and 3 corn (Zea mays) growth periods, with wind erosion calculated with available equations. Results showed that the relationship between measured SLR and percentage of soil cover with flat residues fitted well to the already available equation SLRf = e, where SC is the soil cover with flat residues and a is a constant, but with an a coefficient of 0.0605 instead of the originally provided 0.0438. This resulted in an averaged difference in the SLR of 37% between both equations. The variation in SLR was attributed to differences in the highest speeds used for the derivation of the original a coefficient (16 m s) than wind speeds occurring during field measurements in this study (10.8 m s, in average). The relationship between SLR and soil coverage with flat residues for storms with erosion amounts higher than 100 kg ha had an a coefficient of 0.039, very close to the original a coefficient. Measured SLR as a function of soil cover with corn and sunflower canopy was quite similar to calculations made with the previously available equation, where cc is the fraction of soil surface covered with crop canopy. The published equation, where pgca and pgcb are constants and Pd the days after seeding, was not adequate to explain the evolution of the percentage of soil cover by the crops. This equation was replaced by, where a, b, and c are constants and x is the days after seeding. SLR calculated on the basis of field measurements was, as a function of the days after corn seeding, lower than SLR calculated with available equations at early-crop growth stages and higher at late-crop growth stages. At early-crop growth stages, a critical period for wind erosion occurrence due to the low soil coverage with plants, sunflower had a better wind erosion control efficiency than corn. Sunflower also increased its wind erosion control efficiency with favorable climatic conditions, whereas corn efficiency remained unchanged. Such differences were attributed to the canopy leaf arrangement of each crop (planophyles in sunflower and erectophyles in corn), which resulted in a more effective reduction of wind speed by sunflower leaves than by the narrow leaves of the corn at same growth stages. On the other hand, sunflower had a more efficient use of the solar radiation and a faster canopy growth. We conclude that the equations developed here for use in empirical wind erosion prediction models produce reliable results, even under variable climatic conditions. Such models are useful for sites like the semiarid Pampas, where detailed climatic information is lacking.
Fil: Mendez, Mariano Javier. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra y Ambientales de La Pampa. Universidad Nacional de La Pampa. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra y Ambientales de La Pampa; Argentina
Fil: Buschiazzo, Daniel Eduardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra y Ambientales de La Pampa. Universidad Nacional de La Pampa. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra y Ambientales de La Pampa; Argentina
Subject
SEMIARID REGIONS
SOIL CANOPY COVER
SOIL PLANT RESIDUE COVER
WIND EROSION
Agricultura
Agricultura, Silvicultura y Pesca
CIENCIAS AGRÍCOLAS
Access level
Restricted access
License
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ar/
Repository
CONICET Digital (CONICET)
Institution
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
OAI Identifier
oai:ri.conicet.gov.ar:11336/81738