Astrocytic modulation of blood brain barrier: Perspectives on Parkinson's disease

Authors
Cabezas, Ricardo; Ávila, Marcos; Gonzalez Santos, Janneth; El Bachá, Ramon Santos; Báez, Eliana; Garcia Segura, Luis Miguel; Coronel, Juan Camilo Jurado; Capani, Francisco; Cardona Gomez, Gloria Patricia; Barreto, George E.
Publication Year
2014
Language
English
Format
article
Status
Published version
Description
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a tightly regulated interface in the Central Nervous System (CNS) that regulates the exchange of molecules in and out from the brain thus maintaining the CNS homeostasis. It is mainly composed of endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes and astrocytes that create a neurovascular unit (NVU) with the adjacent neurons. Astrocytes are essential for the formation and maintenance of the BBB by providing secreted factors that lead to the adequate association between the cells of the BBB and the formation of strong tight junctions. Under neurological disorders, such as chronic cerebral ischemia, brain trauma, Epilepsy, Alzheimer and Parkinson's Diseases, a disruption of the BBB takes place, involving a lost in the permeability of the barrier and phenotypical changes in both the ECs and astrocytes. In this aspect, it has been established that the process of reactive gliosis is a common feature of astrocytes during BBB disruption, which has a detrimental effect on the barrier function and a subsequent damage in neuronal survival. In this review we discuss the implications of astrocyte functions in the protection of the BBB, and in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. Additionally, we highlight the current and future strategies in astrocyte protection aimed at the development of restorative therapies for the BBB in pathological conditions.
Fil: Cabezas, Ricardo. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Colombia
Fil: Ávila, Marcos. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Colombia
Fil: Gonzalez Santos, Janneth. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Colombia
Fil: El Bachá, Ramon Santos. Universidade Federal da Bahia; Brasil
Fil: Báez, Eliana. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Colombia
Fil: Garcia Segura, Luis Miguel. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; España
Fil: Coronel, Juan Camilo Jurado. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Colombia
Fil: Capani, Francisco. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Investigaciones Cardiológicas. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Investigaciones Cardiológicas; Argentina
Fil: Cardona Gomez, Gloria Patricia. Universidad de Antioquia; Colombia
Fil: Barreto, George E.. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Colombia
Subject
ASTROCYTES
BBB
ENDOTHELIAL CELLS
PARKINSON DISEASE
REACTIVE ASTROGLIOSIS
Neurociencias
Medicina Básica
CIENCIAS MÉDICAS Y DE LA SALUD
Access level
Open access
License
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ar/
Repository
CONICET Digital (CONICET)
Institution
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
OAI Identifier
oai:ri.conicet.gov.ar:11336/85837