Publication Date: 2015.
The effects of different extraction methods of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) from the sotol plant (Dasylirion leiophyllum) were investigated. Sotol fragments were extracted at 40 and 70 °C, under thermal treatment (T), pre-enzymatic thermal treatment (PET), sonothermal treatment (ST), and pre-enzymatic sonothermal treatment (PEST) conditions: fructose, glucose, sucrose, and fructans were analyzed by HPLC and the total water soluble carbohydrates was determined. At 70 °C, the highest WSC values (482 mg/gd.m.) were obtained, with a fructan proportion of 69%. Pre-enzymatic treatment at 70 °C resulted in a high WSC content with the highest fructans proportion (87%) and lowest contents of RS and sucrose. The effect of the interaction between ultrasound and enzymatic treatments was limited by the high-temperature effect (70 °C), thereby minimizing the extraction. Microscopy analyses showed cell-wall modifications with the ST and PET treatments, which caused an increase in the total soluble sugars. The combination of enzymatic and sonothermal treatments at 70 °C resulted in the extraction of fructans in a higher yield and with less degradation. This circumvents the need for traditional high-energy processes, which could be beneficial for the extraction of WSC such as fructans from sotol or other economically important plants.
Author affiliation: Pardo Rueda, Abril J.. Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas; México
Author affiliation: Quintero Ramos, Armando. Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas; México
Author affiliation: Genovese, Diego Bautista. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Bahía Blanca. Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (i); Argentina. Universidad Nacional del Sur; Argentina
Author affiliation: Camacho Dávila, Alejandro. Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas; México
Author affiliation: Zepeda Rodríguez, Armando. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; México
Author affiliation: Contreras Esquivel, Juan C.. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas; México
Author affiliation: Bizarro, A. Patricia. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; México
Repository: CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
Authors: Frias-De Leon, Maria Guadalupe; Zavala-Ramirez, Monserrat; Córdoba, Susana; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Lopez-Martinez, Irma; Buitrago, María José; Reyes-Montes, Maria del Rocío
Publication Date: 2011.
Background: Epidemiological studies worldwide have shown that A. fumigatus exhibits important phenotypic and genotypic diversity, and these findings have been of great importance in improving the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by this fungus. However, few studies have been carried out related to the epidemiology of this fungus in Latin America. This study's aim is to report on the epidemiology of the fungus by analyzing the phenotypic variability of Aspergillus section Fumigati isolates from different Latin American countries and the relationship between this variability, the geographical origin and genotypic characteristics. Methods: We analyzed the phenotypic characteristics (macro-and micromorphology, conidial size, vesicles size, antifungal susceptibility and thermotolerance at 28, 37 and 48 degrees C) of A. section Fumigati isolates from Mexico (MX), Argentina (AR), Peru (PE) and France (FR). The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparison test to detect significant differences. Two dendrograms among isolates were obtained with UPGMA using the Euclidean distance index. One was drawn for phenotypic data, and the other for phenotypic and genotypic data. A PCoA was done for shown isolates in a space of reduced dimensionality. In order to determine the degree of association between the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics AFLP, we calculated the correlation between parwise Euclidean distance matrices of both data sets with the nonparametric Mantel test. Results: No variability was found in the macromorphology of the studied isolates; however, the micromorphology and growth rate showed that the PE isolates grew at a faster rate and exhibited the widest vesicles in comparison to the isolates from MX, AR and FR. The dendrogram constructed with phenotypic data showed three distinct groups. The group I and II were formed with isolates from PE and FR, respectively, while group III was formed with isolates from MX and AR. The dendrogram with phenotypic and genotypic data showed the same cluster, except for an isolate from FR that formed a separate cluster. This cluster was confirmed using PCoA. The correlation between the phenotypic and genotypic data of the isolates revealed a statistically significant association between these characteristics. Conclusions: The PE isolates showed specific phenotypic characteristics that clearly differentiate them from the rest of the isolates, which matches the genotypic data. The correlation between the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics showed a statistically significant association. In conclusion, phenotypic and genotypic methods together increase the power of correlation between isolates.
Author affiliation: Frias-De Leon, Maria Guadalupe. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Laboratorio de Micología Molecular; México.
Author affiliation: Zavala-Ramirez, Monserrat. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Laboratorio de Micología Molecular; México.
Author affiliation: Córdoba, Susana. ANLIS Dr.C.G.Malbrán. Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas. Departamento de Micología; Argentina.
Author affiliation: Zuniga, Gerardo. Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Departamento de Zoología; México.
Author affiliation: Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Laboratorio de Micología Molecular; México.
Author affiliation: Perez-Torres, Armando. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Departamento de Biología Celular y Tisular; México.
Author affiliation: Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Departamento de Biología Celular y Tisular; México.
Author affiliation: Lopez-Martinez, Irma. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Departamento de Biología Celular y Tisular; México.
Author affiliation: Buitrago, Maria Jose. Instituto de Salud Carlos III. Servicio de Micología; España.
Author affiliation: Reyes-Montes, Maria del Rocio. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Laboratorio de Micología Molecular; México.
Repository: Sistema de Gestión del Conocimiento ANLIS MALBRÁN. Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud “Dr. Carlos Malbrán”