Publication Date: 2016.
The geographical distribution of Amblyomma parvum Aragão 1908 in the New World is disjunct, with two main clusters separated from each other by the Amazon basin. The main objectives of this study were to further investigate the systematic relationships within A. parvum, to determine whether or not populations from different geographical areas might represent cryptic species, and to reconstruct the phylogeographical evolutionary history of the species. The genetic diversity of A. parvum collected throughout its distributional range was analyzed by using 6 molecular markers: 5 mitochondrial [the small and the large ribosomal subunits 12rDNA and 16SrDNA, the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and II (COII) and the control region or d-loop (DL)], and one nuclear (ITS2, Inter transcribed spacer 2). Phylogenetic trees were inferred by using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. In addition, node dating was attempted for the main lineages identified phylogenetically. Although mitochondrial and nuclear topologies were not totally congruent, they all identified at least two main supported clusters, a Central American lineage, and a Brazilian-Argentinian lineage. Clade support and divergence values strongly suggest that the two lineages correspond to different taxonomic entities. Node dating placed the split between the Central American and the Brazilian-Argentinian lineages at approximately 5.8–4.9 Mya, just after the progressive replacement of the dry areas that occupied the northern part of South America by the Amazon Basin in the early-mid Miocene. This event might be the cause of fragmentation and putative speciation within the ancestral relatively xerophilic A. parvum population.
Author affiliation: Lado, Paula. Georgia Southern University. Institute for Coastal Plain Science. United States National Tick Collection; Estados Unidos
Author affiliation: Nava, Santiago. INTA. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Rafaela; Argentina
Author affiliation: Labruna, Marcelo B. Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal; Brasil
Author affiliation: Szabó, Matías P.J. Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Brasil
Author affiliation: Durden, Lance A. Georgia Southern University. Biology Department; Estados Unidos
Author affiliation: Bermudez, Sergio. Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud. Departamento de Investigación en Entomología Médica; Panamá
Author affiliation: Montagna, Matteo. Università degli Studi di Milano. Dipartamento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali; Italia
Author affiliation: Sánchez Quirós, Ana C. Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología; Costa Rica
Author affiliation: Beati, Lorenza. Georgia Southern University. Institute for Coastal Plain Science. United States National Tick Collection; Estados Unidos
Repository: INTA Digital (INTA). Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria