Authors: Debiaggi, Maria Florencia; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Pianciola, Luis Alfredo; Mazzeo, Melina Leonor; Moguillansky, Sergio; Basualdo Farjat, Juan Angel
Publication Date: 2017.
Human cystic echinococcosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a highly endemic disease in the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Human infections with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and Echinococcus canadensis G6 were reported in Neuquén in previous studies, whereas four genotypes were identified in livestock: G1, G3, G6, and G7. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. isolates from humans of Neuquén province, Patagonia, Argentina, through the 2005–2014 period. Twenty six hydatid cysts were obtained from 21 patients. The most frequent locations were the liver and lungs. Single cysts were observed in 81.0% of patients, and combined infection of liver and lungs was detected in 9.5% of cases. Partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes identified the presence of E. granulosus s.s. G1 (n = 11; 42.3%) including three different partial sequences; E. canadensis G6 (n = 14; 53.8%) and E. canadensis G7 (n = 1; 3.9%). Coinfection with G1 and G7 genotypes was detected in one patient who harbored three liver cysts. Most of the liver cysts corresponded to G1 and G6 genotypes. This study presents the first report in the Americas of a human infection with E. canadensis G7 and the second worldwide report of a coinfection with two different species and genotypes of E. granulosus s.l in humans. The molecular diversity of this parasite should be considered to redesign or improve the control program strategies in endemic regions.
Author affiliation: Debiaggi, Maria Florencia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Patagonia Norte; Argentina. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Facultad de Medicina; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina
Author affiliation: Soriano, Silvia Viviana. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Facultad de Medicina; Argentina
Author affiliation: Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Facultad de Medicina; Argentina
Author affiliation: Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Facultad de Medicina; Argentina
Author affiliation: Pianciola, Luis Alfredo. Provinica de de Neuquén. Subsecretaría de Salud; Argentina
Author affiliation: Mazzeo, Melina Leonor. Provinica de de Neuquén. Subsecretaría de Salud; Argentina
Author affiliation: Moguillansky, Sergio. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Facultad de Medicina; Argentina
Author affiliation: Basualdo Farjat, Juan Angel. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas; Argentina
Repository: CONICET Digital (CONICET). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
Publication Date: 2016.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens associated with human diseases. In Argentina, O157:H7 is the dominant serotype in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases. Previously, we have described the almost exclusive circulation of human E. coli O157 strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 in Neuquén Province. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a broad molecular characterization, if this particular distribution of E. coli O157 clades in Neuquén is similar to the situation in other regions of the country and if it may be originated in a similar profile in cattle, its main reservoir. Two-hundred and eighty O157 strains (54 bovine and 226 human) isolated between 2006 and 2008 in different regions of Argentina were studied. All strains harbored rfbO157, fliCH7, eae, and ehxA genes. The predominant genotype was stx2a/stx2c in human (76.1%) and bovine (55.5%) strains. All human isolates tested by Lineage-Specific Polymorphism Assay (LSPA-6), were lineage I/II; among bovine strains, 94.1% belonged to lineage I/II and 5.9% to lineage I. No LSPA-6 lineage II isolates were detected. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis has revealed the existence of nine clade phylogenetic groups. In our clinical strains collection, 87.6% belonged to the hypervirulent clade 8, and 12.4% were classified as clade 4/5. In bovine isolates, 59.3% strains were clade 8, 33.3% clade 4/5 and 7.4% clade 3. More than 80% of human strains showed the presence of 6 of the 7 virulence determinants described in the TW14359 O157 strain associated with the raw spinach outbreak in the U.S. in 2006. More than 80% of bovine strains showed the presence of 3 of these factors. The q933 allele, which has been related to high toxin production, was present in 98.2% of clinical strains and 75.9% of the bovine isolates. The molecular characterization of human STEC O157 strains allows us to conclude that the particular situation previously described for Neuquén Province, may actually be a characteristic of the whole country. These genetic features are quite similar to those observed in the bovine reservoir and may be derived from it. This data confirms that, unlike the rest of the world, in Argentina most of the STEC O157 strains present in cattle may cause human infections of varying severity and the marked virulence described for these strains may be related to the high incidence of HUS in our country.
Author affiliation: Masana, Marcelo Oscar. INTA. Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos; Argentina.
Author affiliation: Pianciola, Luis. Subsecretaría de Salud de Neuquén. Laboratorio Central; Argentina
Author affiliation: D’astek, B.A. Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas-ANLIS ‘‘Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán’’. Servicio Fisiopatogenia; Argentina.
Author affiliation: Mazzeo, Melina Leonor. Subsecretaría de Salud de Neuquén. Laboratorio Central; Argentina.
Author affiliation: Chinen, Isabel. Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas-ANLIS ‘‘Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán’’. Servicio Fisiopatogenia; Argentina.
Author affiliation: Rivas, Marta. Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas-ANLIS ‘‘Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán’’. Servicio Fisiopatogenia; Argentina.
Repository: INTA Digital (INTA). Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria